The U.S. Department of Energy is working with industry to develop, build, operate, and validate integrated biorefineries.  The industry innovators are developing projects at  various scales (pilot, demonstration, and commercial). As shown on the map below, these projects are located throughout the United States and use a range of feedstocks and conversion technologies.


Economic Impact

To encourage the use of biofuels and reduce our reliance on foreign oil, the U.S. Government, under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, also called the Renewable Fuels Standard, mandates the minimum production of renewable fuels per year. By the year 2022, the Renewable Fuels Standard mandates that there must be a total of 36 billion gallons of renewable fuels produced in the United States of which 16 billion gallons must be cellulosic ethanol.

(Chart credit:http://www.bfenergy.com/faq.html)

If the efforts by the many companies working to develop biomass based fuels and chemicals are successful, the economic impact is significant. If biofuel production technology advances and petroleum prices continue to rise as projected, the fulfillment of the Renewable Fuel Standard would benefit the U.S. economy. U.S. household consumption would rise because of higher pay for workers, increased family income, and lower import prices. If we produce instead of importing petroleum, the United States would pay less for imports and receive income from exports providing a gain for the economy from favorable terms of trade. Improved technologies and construction of new production facilities will create new wealth for the U.S. economy and its people.