Biofuels and Chemicals are produced through a network of processes. First, the Biomass produced by crops or bio waste is obtained. Next, the biomass is transferred to a facility that specializes in the conversion of biomass to useable biofuels and biochemicals. The most common conversions performed at these conversion facilities are biochemical conversions and  thermochemical conversions.

.:Biochemical Conversions

In a biochemical conversion, biomass is broken down into sugars using either enzymes or other chemical processes which in turn, may be converted into ethanol by way of fermentation. Biochemical conversions can also be accomplished using the concentrated acid hydrolysis process which does not require the use of enzymes.

.:Thermochemical Conversions

In a thermochemical conversion, biomass is broken down through specific heating processes and then converted into fuels through heating and pressurization in a catalytic environment. There are two main types of thermochemical conversions, gasification and pyrolosis. The two types of thermochemical conversions differ in the amount of oxygen involved during the heating process. In gasification, biomass is heated with the presence of about 1/3 of the amount of oxygen needed for complete combustion. However, in pyrolosis, biomass is heated in the absence of oxygen. The products produced by both of the conversion methods may be immediately used or refined for the production of refined biofuels.