Novozymes

  • Novozymes provide enzymes that make the process of refining and processing ethanol much more efficient at low costs as well. An example of the enzymes being produced is Liquozyme®, which unlocks more dextrose from starches in ethanol production. Another example of enzymes that Novozymes created for ethanol production is Spirizyme® glucoamylases, which currently is the most advanced saccharification solutions that provides the most efficient conversions from dextrins to sugars. Viscozyme® is another enzyme used in the ethanol procedure that provides maximum viscosity reduction. (Citation 18)

  • By 2010, Novozymes had promised that enzymes will be manufactured for the production of cellulosic ethanol. And that promise has been kept, since Novozymes has released Novozymes Cellic® CTec2. The advantages for cellulosic ethanol include:

    • Cellulosic ethanol can be produced from a variety of crops, which contain: corn cobs, wheat straw, and sugar cane bagasse.

    • 90% of CO2 emissions will be cut by using celluslosic ethanol, compared to petroleum fuel emissions.

    • Biomass sources are not currently used to their fullest ability, but cellulosic ethanol will use up all the sources so there will not be extra waste. (Citation 19)

  • Chevron

  • Chevron is working on producing advanced biofuels, which will benefit the environment because they will produce lower carbon and sulfur emissions. In order to do so, Chevron is working on four things to make these advanced biofuels possible:

    • Scalability: Chevron must consider that tons of millions of biomass is required to produce an amount of biofuel to meet the energy requirements for the world and to benefit the environment.

    • Sustainability: Issues of land must be understood before we start planting biomass to produce into biofuel.

    • Cost: We must understand the price it takes to plant and harvest all these crops and in order to produce enough biofuel for the whole world to consume, the prices must go down.

    • Policy: Policy makers must set realistic goals associated with today's technology. There must be some time for technology to advance before we reach our ultimate goal of providing the whole world with biofuels.

  • At the moment, Chevron is identifying feedstocks that can be used for biofuel growth. They are categorizing them into two groups: lignocellulosics and lipids. Lignocellulosics include agricultural byproducts and forest-based plants, like switchgrass. On the other side, lipids can be produced from microbes and be extracted from nonedible oilseed plants. Chevron is also conducting many experiments to find out the best possible way to transform biofuels from biomass. Most importantly, Chevron is trying to find a biofuel that supports most cars that people drive currently. (Citation 20)

 

Shell

  • Shell is the biggest distributor of biofuels, since they had distributed 9 billion liters of biofuels in 2009.

  • In August 2010, they signed a contract to form a joint agreement with Cosan, another biofuels company in Brazil, to produce ethanol from sugar cane in Brazil.

  • 81% of the companies that Shell got their biofuels from had signed Shell's contract, which includes workers' rights and the protection of biodiversity.

  • Currently Shell is working with companies to produce advanced biofuels, which will come from new sources and produce fewer emissions than previous biofuels. For example, Shell is currently working with Iogen Energy, a Canadian company, to invent a way to produce biofuels from straw by using enzymes. Shell is also aligned with Codexis to manufacture more powerful enzymes, so that the process of creating biofuels will become more efficient.

  • As you can see to the right, there are some stocks of companies that Shell works with, like Codexis and Cosan. (Citation 21)